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Turpan, August 16th 2012

When we arrived in front of the Turpan Railway Station, there was no windstorm, no rain. But obviously, it had been raining, hard. My first impression of chaos yesterday worsen.

So this is the train station. Inside the waiting room which I had to reach by going down stairs and then up again -- no elevator no escalator -- I was faced by a pack of passengers close to one another like bees in a hive. "Kroookkk, kroookkk! Grrrohhh!" A man spat on the floor. I looked away instantly.

When we were at Flaming Mountain, I promised I would write about the history information displayed in the museum. While waiting for K9756 Train to bring us to Korla, let me share you the information about Turpan History. As usual, I'm merely copying.

The History Of Turpan

According to the <History> and <Han History., the aborigionals in the eastern Tinashan were Gushi People. They "chased water and grass and made tents to live, and could maka bows and arrows and were skillful in farming, and had cows, camels, and sheeps and so on. "The Gushi People gathered in Turpan Basin, and the King lived in Jiaohe City.

In 609 AD, Gaochang was attached to Sui Dynasty. The Sui Court set up Shanshan County, Qiemo County, Yiwu County, all of which were administrated by the Western Field Officer.

In 640 AD, the Tang Dynasty controlled Gaochang Qu's Kingdom, and set up Xizhou Prefecture in Gaochang. The Tang Dynasty also set up Tingzhou in Hehanfutu City and set up Anxi Military Government in Gaochang City.

In 1209 AD, Chengjishan founded Mongolian State of Khan. The chief of Gaochang Huihu Barartedijin led the army to go on a campaign and defeated the Western Liao. Owing to the battle achievements, the Gaochang Huihu became the protected county of Mongolian Empire.

In 1368AD, The Ming Dynasty was founded. Turpan district was devided into three parts: Turpan Department, Huozhou Department, Liucheng Department.

In 1720 AD, the Senior Ahung Emin Hojia surrendered to the Qing Court.

In 1911 AD, Turpan was changed from Office to County.

In 1937 AD, Jin Shuren ordered to abolish the King system. Thus the King system ended after 6 generations, 9 kings with a history of 178 years.

In September 25, 1949 AD, Turpan was liberated peacefully.

In July 1, 1975 AD, Turpan Prefecture was founded.

The Hotness And Wind In Turpan
Since the Turpan oasis is a enclosed basin, where does the wind come from? Actually the wind in Turpan comes from two sources.

1. The basin is very low and has a sharp height difference. When spring comes, the radiation increases very quickly, which makes the temperature rise quickly. At the same time, the area to the north of the Tianshan Mountain which is abutting on the Turpan Basin is still covered with snow and ice. Thus the big temperature difference and the low pressure form in a short time, which causes the warm airflow to rise and the cold airflow in the north to descend quickly. Trying to find the easy way to pass, the cold airflow goes at the Turpan Basin through Baiyanggou Valley which is in the northwest of Turpan and Shisanjiantang which is in east of Turpan. This is the northwest wind forms.

2. Because it is very hot in the basin, the hot low pressure emerges. Owing to the big difference of the height and temperature between the basin and mountains, the dry and hot air in the basin and he cold air in the mountains begin to convert which is typical in the world. When cold air comes down, the insulated temperature-increase begins, and the air temperature rises quickly, which makes the temperature of the wind higher than that of air. This is how the dry and hot wind, which is also called foehn forms.

The average temperature in years: 300C
The extremely hot temperature: 49.60C
The annual time of sunlight: 3000 h
The total amount of radiation: 139.5 cal
The frostless period: 268.6-324 days
The extreme temperature of the ground surface in summer: 82.30C
It is said that eggs can be baked in the sand or on the stone.

There was one thing essential not mentioned in this museum. That is the strong correlation between Turpan and Turkey.

When I drew my first Silk Road itinerary, I 'jumped' from Xinjiang to Turkey not because I was aware of the close relationship. Time certainly didn't allow me to travel through the 'stan' countries up to Turkey. I was thrilled when my driver told me that Uyghur language and Turkish language are pretty similar and that Uyghur people and Turkish people can understand each other. Separated so far away and yet they are so in common? How could it be?

"From 487 to 541 AD Turfan was an independent Kingdom ruled by a Turkish tribe known to the Chinese as the Gaoche. During the 7th, 8th, and early 9th centuries the Tang, the Empire of Tibet, and the Turks fought for that region. Under Tang rule, Turfan became a center of major commercial activity between Chinese and Sogdian merchants. In 856AD, the Uyghurs established a Kingdom in Turfan known as the Uyghuria Idikut state or Kara-Khoja Uyghur Idikut Kingdom that lasted till 1389 AD as a vassal of the Mongol Empire." explained here by China Tour Online.

I made further researched through the internet. According to Wikipedia about Turkey, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity. They are estimated at 70–75%. This Turkish ethnicity is called the Turks. Now, check here regarding the historical confederation of tribes and Turkic dynasties. Gaocha (高車/高车) is mentioned on top! Scroll down to the China part. You'll find Tang Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, Han Dynasty. Scroll up, you'll find Uyghur mentioned as one of today's Turkic independent state. Lastly, check the Timeline of the Turks from 500 to 1300. You might be surprised that the timeline starts from Altai Mountains which is way closer to present Xinjiang than it is to present Turkey.

Posted by automidori 22:38 Archived in China Tagged china xinjiang turpan

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